20 Ocak 2013 Pazar

Existential psychology

BTD (Bilişsel Davranışçı Terapi) ve varoluşsal psikolojinin ilişkisine dair okumakta olduğum bir makaleden alıntılar: 

(Prasko, J.Mainerova, B., Jelenova, D., Kamaradova, D., & Sigmundova, Z. (2012). Existential perspectives and cognitive behavioral therapy. Activitas Nervosa Superior Rediviva, 54 (1), 3-14)

''According to Jean-Paul Sartre life is meaningless unless a person makes personal commitments that give it meaning; personal decisions and choices are crucial (Sartre 1964). 

Loss of the sense of the life and negative view on the future in depression are typical existential problems (Yalom 1980). 

If the human being’s natural way of organizing personal experiences is to construct narratives about his life, then it seems natural that these narratives are also what let us develop a perception of who we are and what we want in the future. Narrative has been characterized by the way individuals use language connected to various psychological processes, such as memory, emotion, perception, and meanings (Angus & McLeod 2004; Goncalves et al 2004). Being-for itself in existential per- spective is strongly influenced by personal story. The client’s story has developed from the experiences he/ she had in childhood, parents ́ and teacher’s stories and also from the interaction in the actual context and the anticipation of future tasks and events. A central claim of narrative therapy is that we “narrate” our lives: that we form narratives of the past and future and that these do not only describe our lives but might also influence our lives (Rhodes & Jakes 2000). Thus we develop a personal identity through our own life story (Beskow & Miro 2004). This identity deals with main issues of human existence, like self-actualization, freedom, responsibility, the sense of life, inevitability of death.

Even in the absence of others around, we learn about ourselves by imaginative listening to our own thoughts through the ears of the other (Prasko et al 2010).

Story is one of the most potent containers for meaning (Gold 2007). Narrative – a form of personal storytelling – represents a fundamental mode of thought, a way of ‘‘ordering experience’’ and ‘‘constructing reality.’’ Narrative gives meaning to personal experiences, and through narrative the speaker discloses personal forms of thought and feeling. Narrative also allows the individual to construct order from the disorder and chaos that sometimes plague our daily lives and to come along with a problematic experience’’ (Jackson 2002). But narrative renderings are not simply free-flowing, disconnected and largely incoherent ramblings. Rather, they tend to be shaped by detailed, cultural, and often context-specific cognitive schemas, interpretative processes, integral to the constructive nature of cognition, which mediate our understanding of the world (Garro & Mattingly 2000) and future. 

Acceptance of emotional experience as an integral aspect of living is also inherent in the tradition of existential approaches (May 1977; Yalom 1980).

In existential therapy, individuals are conflicted with the knowledge of death, isolation, freedom, and meaninglessness (Watson et al 1998).

Health is seen as the ability to accept the anxiety that accompanies the knowledge of these negative forces and not to resort, trying to suppress, ignore, or control the reality of the definitiveness of experience. 

The meaning cannot be given, it must be found. 

Nietzsche said that if you want to learn about man ́s philosophy, ask first, “What are his values?” Lack of values, confusion of goals with values, and other values problems may underlay the failure to build broad and flexible repertoires.

Death and dying, natural processes of the end of life are not reflected in the modern society. People live as if dying and death were always someone else’s problem. They tend to displace these topics.''

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